# Appendix D:

Laws Relating to Gases

# Kinetic Energy

All moving objects, by virtue of their motion, are capable of doing work. We call this energy of motion, or kinetic energy. The kinetic energy of a moving object is equal to one-half its mass (M) multiplied by its velocity (v) squared. Stated mathematically:

Therefore, by doubling the velocity of a moving object, the object’s kinetic energy will increase four times.

# First Law of Thermodynamics

The first law of thermodynamics is simply the thermal version of the law of conservation of energy, which states that energy cannot be created or destroyed, only transformed from one form to another. Meteorologists use the first law of thermodynamics along with the principles of kinetic energy extensively in analyzing atmospheric phenomena. According to the kinetic theory, the temperature of a gas is proportional to the kinetic energy of the moving molecules. When a gas is heated, its kinetic energy increases because of an increase in molecular motion. Further, when a gas is compressed, the kinetic energy will also be increased and the temperature of the gas will rise. These relationships are expressed in the first law of thermodynamics, as follows: The temperature of a gas may be changed by the addition or subtraction of heat, or by changing the pressure (compression or expansion), or by a combination of both. It is easy to understand how the atmosphere is heated or cooled by the gain or loss of heat. However, when we consider rising and sinking air, the relationships between temperature and pressure become more important. Here an increase in temperature is brought about by performing work on the gas and not by the addition of heat. This phenomenon is called the adiabatic form of the first law of thermodynamics.

# Boyle’s Law

About 1600, the Englishman Robert Boyle showed that if the temperature is kept constant when the pressure exerted on a gas is increased, the volume decreases. This principle, called Boyle’s law, states: At a constant temperature, the volume of a given mass of gas varies inversely with the pressure. Stated mathematically:

The symbols P1 and V1 refer to the original pressure and volume, respectively, and P2 and V2 indicate the new pressure and volume, respectively, after a change occurs. Boyle’s law shows that if a given volume of gas is compressed so that the volume is reduced by one-half, the pressure exerted by the gas is doubled. This increase in pressure can be explained by the kinetic theory, which predicts that when the volume of the gas is reduced by one-half, the molecules collide with the walls of the container twice as often. Because density is defined as the mass per unit volume, an increase in pressure results in increased density.

# Charles’s Law

The relationships between temperature and volume (hence, density) of a gas were recognized about 1787 by the French scientist Jacques Charles, and were stated formally by J. Gay-Lussac in 1802. Charles’s law states: At a constant pressure, the volume of a given mass is directly proportional to the absolute temperature. In other words, when a quantity of gas is kept at a constant pressure, an increase in temperature results in an increase in volume and vice versa. Stated mathematically:

where V1 and T1 represent the original volume and temperature, respectively, and V2 and T2 represent the final volume and temperature, respectively. This law explains the fact that a gas expands when it is heated. According to the kinetic theory, when heated, particles move more rapidly and therefore collide more often.

# The Ideal Gas Law or Equation of State

In describing the atmosphere, three variable quantities must be considered: pressure, temperature, and density (mass per unit volume). The relationships among these variables can be found by combining in a single statement the laws of Boyle and Charles as follows:

where P is pressure, V volume, R the constant of proportionality, T absolute temperature, and density. This law, called the ideal gas law, states:

When the volume is kept constant, the pressure of a gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature.

When the temperature is kept constant, the pressure of a gas is proportional to its density and inversely proportional to its volume.

When the pressure is kept constant, the absolute temperature of a gas is proportional to its volume and inversely proportional to its density.